Spatial Language and Event Semantics in Mandarin 《汉语空间表达与事件语义学》Deng, Xiangjun.China Social Sciences Press:2018摘要《汉语空间表达与事件语义学》系统探讨汉语空间表达，从词、短语及句子多个层面考察汉语普通话如何对空间概念进行编码。作者引介了西方的事件语义学，将其核心概念（如事件类型、事件结构）和语义原则应用于汉语表达空间关系*重要的几种句式的分析上。我们发现这些语义原则可以统一地描写及解释“在”**的空间介词短语和处所主语句的句法语义特征。
The acquisition of resultative verb compounds in MandarinDeng, Xiangjun.Journal of Chinese Linguistics:2019,47(1),42-81摘要Resultative verb compounds (RVCs) in Mandarin appear in a V1-V2 sequence and have three major subtypes—result-state, directional and completive RVCs with different degrees of compositionality depending on the extent to which the compounds meaning can be derived from the meanings of the component verbs. The derivation of the RVC has been analyzed as a lexical or syntactic process. Previous acquisition studies show that the RVCs compositionality and event structure are not fully acquired before the age of three. Findings conflict on whether the acquisition process revealed by early RVCs is usage-based or rule-based. We examined longitudinal data from two Mandarin-speaking children and administered a novel verb experiment on 32 children. The lexicalist approach to RVC formation is a better account for our data than the syntactic approach. Our data lend support to rule-based learning of RVCs. Children master the event structure of RVCs and its interaction with aspect gradually. The headedness of the RVC in relation to event structure depends on its type: V2 is more salient than V1 for the result-state RVC, while V1 is more salient than V2 for the directional RVC.
汉语普通话中的动补复合动词以V1-V2（动词1-动词2）的形式出现， 包括结果状态、趋向和结束动补复合动词这三个主要类别。关于这些 复合词的词义是否能够直接从V1 和V2 的意义推衍出来，三类动补 复合动词存在程度上的差别，即在组合性上存在差别。关于动补复合 动词的形成，有分析认为它们是句法生成的，也有分析认为它们是词 汇规则生成的。以往的习得研究显示，普通话儿童3 岁前未完全掌握 动补复合动词的组合性和事件结构。早期的动补复合动词是基于规则 习得的还是基于使用习得的尚无定论。我们跟踪调查了两名普通话幼 儿，并对32 名儿童进行了假词实验。我们的发现支持动补复合动词是 词汇规则生成的而不是句法生成的，并支持基于规则的习得这一理论 假设。儿童是逐步掌握动补复合动词的事件结构以及事件结构与体貌 的互动的。动补复合动词事件结构的核心由它们的类别决定：结果状 态动补复合动词的V2 比V1 更显著；而趋向动补复合动词的V1 比 V2 更显著。
An event-semantic account of spatial modification in the acquisition of MandarinDeng, Xiangjun and Virginia Yip.Journal of Child Language:2018,45(4),829-857摘要This study investigates Mandarin-speaking childrens knowledge of event semantics in interpreting spatial modifiers with zai ‘at’ after a posture verb or before a placement verb. The event-semantic principles investigated include subevent modification (Parsons, 1990) and aspect shift (Fong, 1997). We conducted an experimental study using modified forced choice, video choice, and elicited production techniques with five groups of children (two- to six-year-olds) and an adult control group. Three-year-olds were sensitive to the ambiguity of zai -PPs with placement verbs and posture verbs, suggesting guidance from principles of aspect shift and subevent modification. On the other hand, distributional properties of the input play a role in acquiring the interpretation and word order of zai : e.g., four-year-olds significantly differed from adults in accepting non-target V- zai sentences, as some verb classes can take postverbal prepositional phrases with zai while others cannot in adult usage.
A multimedia corpus of child Mandarin: The Tong corpusDeng, Xiangjun & Virginia Yip.Journal of Chinese Linguistics:2018,46 (1),69-92摘要This article features a new multimedia corpus with 22 hours of recordings of a Mandarin-speaking child from the age of 1;7 to 3;4. We review the state of the art in the use of corpora for first language acquisition of Mandarin, and highlight the importance of corpus studies in evaluating children’s language developmental patterns vis-a-vis adult input. The transcripts in our new corpus are annotated with a morphological tier indicating parts of speech, and linked to audio or video files. This corpus goes beyond existing published corpora of child Mandarin in having more data for a single child, as well as media linking. It contributes to a number of fields including language acquisition, Chinese linguistics, corpus linguistics, developmental psycholinguistics, education, and speech and language therapy.
本文发布一个新的多媒体语料库的首阶段成果。这部分内容记录了一名普通话儿童从 1 岁 7 个月到 3 岁 4 个月期间的语言发展，共录得 22 个小时的语料。借此机会，我们回顾了汉语 普通话一语习得研究中语料库使用的最新情况，强调语料库研究在考察儿童语言发展和成人 语言输入时的重要作用。在我们这个新的语料库中，文字转写材料添加了词类注释层，并已 实现与多媒体材料的链接。这个语料库在单个普通话儿童数据量和音频视频链接上超越了现 有已发表的语料库。它将为语言习得、汉语语言学、语料库语言学、发展心理语言学、教育 以及言语治疗等诸领域做出贡献。
An aspectual account of ba and bei constructions in child MandarinDeng, Xiangjun, Ziyin Mai and Virginia Yip.First Language:2018,38 (3),243-262摘要This study examines the ba and bei constructions in Mandarin using data from the Tong corpus, a new multimedia longitudinal child language corpus. A unified aspectual account of the two constructions is proposed: both require telic predicates, and should thus correlate with the perfective rather than imperfective aspect for learners. Analysis of corpus and diary data reveals that Tong is generally sensitive to the telic requirement when he begins to use the two constructions around 2;0. His ba and bei sentences occur far more frequently in perfective than imperfective aspect, consistent with the Aspect Hypothesis. However, while the majority of the child’s bei passives are perfective, the majority of his ba sentences are produced without overt aspect markers, among which most are irrealis (imperatives, modal sentences, etc.). The difference mirrors the pattern in adult input. These findings are corroborated by additional child Mandarin corpora. The acquisition of the aspectual properties of the ba and bei constructions is influenced by inherent knowledge, input and language-specific features of Mandarin, consistent with the multi-factorial account proposed by earlier studies.
Selective vulnerability and dominant language transfer in the acquisition of the Chinese cleft construction by heritage speakersMai, Ziyin & Deng, Xiangjun.Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism:2017,doi: 10.1075/lab.16040.mai摘要This study investigates effects of selective vulnerability and dominant language transfer in heritage grammar. Mandarin Chinese has a shì…de cleft construction, which, despite its superficial similarities with the it-cleft in English, is subject to additional conditions. Four experimental tasks elicited eighteen adult heritage speakers’ implicit knowledge of the word order and the temporal, telicity and discourse conditions associated with the Chinese cleft. The heritage speakers demonstrated target-like representation of the conditions. Meanwhile, their sensitivity to the telicity and discourse conditions is weaker than that of native speakers in Beijing, suggesting selective vulnerability in the heritage grammar. By comparing the heritage speakers with adult second language learners of Chinese, we concluded that the vulnerability of the heritage grammar in the discourse domain did not result from cross-linguistic influence from English. In different types of Chinese-English bilinguals, the dominant language affects the weaker language in different ways.
Cognition and perception in the linguistic encoding of space in child MandarinDeng, Xiangjun & Virginia Yip.Journal of Chinese Linguistics:2016,44 (2),287-325摘要下载全文Mandarin-speaking children based on a corpus study and a series of experimental tasks. It is shown that cognitive development plays a significant role in the development of spatial language. The acquisition of pang ‘side’ before you ‘right’ is accounted for by the cognitive complexity of the localizers. Cognitive egocentricity biased children under 4;0 towards the aligned strategy in interpreting qian ‘front’ and hou ‘back’, and caused 6-year-olds to rely on the viewer-centered frame of reference in interpreting zuo ‘left’ and you ‘right’ when the reference entity has inherent orientation. Our findings show that young children are sensitive to the Figure-Ground asymmetry, a cognitive constraint, and perceptual cues influence children’s choice of reference strategies.
The linguistic encoding of space in child Mandarin: A corpus-based studyDeng, Xiangjun & Virginia Yip.Linguistics:2015,53(5),1079-1112摘要This study investigates the acquisition of Mandarin spatial phrases from the perspective of language universality and specificity. The potential language universals discussed in this study include aspect shift (Fong 1997; Smith 1997; Rothstein 2004), and subevent modification (Dowty 1979; Parsons 1990). We propose an event-semantics account for the distribution and interpretation of Mandarin spatial PPs headed by zai ‘(be) at’. However, in Mandarin, the formation of localizer phrases and the division of labor between zai and dao ‘reach, to’ in the postverbal position also demonstrate language-specific complexities. We conducted a corpus study of Mandarin-speaking children aged between 1;9 and 6;0, adopting an integrative approach that takes into account multiple factors, including linguistic input, children’s knowledge of event semantics, formal complexity, and cognitive development. Inconsistent cues from the input slow down acquisition: children up to 6;0 omitted localizers that are obligatory; 4-year-olds have not acquired the division of labor between zai and dao. Children’s early sensitivity to the placement and interpretation of zai-PPs suggests guidance by universal principles. Formal complexity explains why prepositional zai, being more complex than verbal zai, is acquired later. Further, children’s cognitive development explains their reliance on deictic pronouns, and their preference to express Goal.